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(VietnameseViệt Võ ĐạoMartial Arts of Vietnam) is a Vietnamese martial art.

Vovinam is practiced with and without weapons. It is based on the principle of between hard and soft. It includes training of the body as well as the mind. It uses force and reaction of the opponent. Vovinam also includes handelbowkicks, escape- and levering techniques. Both attack and defense techniques are trained, as well as forms, combat and traditional wrestling. The wide range of techniques include punching, kicking etc. as well as formswrestlingswordstaffaxefolding fan and others.

Self-defense techniques cover defense against weaponless attacks like choking from behind and defense against attacks with knife or sword. Advanced students learn to combine the techniques and learn to defend themselves against armed opponents. Instructors train traditional weapons like the long stick, short stick, knife, sword and sabre. Thereby the weapons serve as training devices for reaching optimal control of body and mind.




Vovinam founder Nguyễn Lộc.

Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo was founded as Vovinam by Nguyễn Lộc (1912 – 1960) in 1938, with the intent of providing practitioners with an efficient method of self-defense after a short period of study. Nguyễn believed martial arts would contribute to freeing Vietnam, which had been ruled by France since 1859, from outside domination. Vovinam, which Nguyễn synthesized from his knowledge of traditional Vietnamese martial arts and elements of Chinese, Japanese and Korean systems, was thus created partially as a response to the French occupation, meant to promote a sense of national identity for the Vietnamese people.[1] After being invited to demonstrate Vovinam publicly in Hanoi with his disciples in 1940, Nguyễn was invited to teach the art at Hanoi’s Ecole Normale, and Vovinam gained in popularity. During the following years, political unrest increased throughout Vietnam; due to the system’s nationalist political orientation, the art came under suppression. By 1954, Nguyễn had emigrated to South Vietnam, where he was able to continue to teach and establish Vovinam schools. After his death in 1960, Grandmaster Le Sang continued the development and international promotion of Vovinam until his own death on September 27, 2010. The first Vovinam school outside of Vietnam was established inHouston, Texas by Vietnamese emigrants in 1976, after the Fall of Saigon. By 2000, Vovinam schools had been established in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Morocco, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States.[2] Vovinam now exists as Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo, without the political overtones it previously carried.[1]


The form of the yellow Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo logo is composed from a rectangle and a circle, angular at the top, round at the bottom.[3][4] This form symbolizes the perfection of the hard and soft, the truth, good and the beautiful.

The logo is framed in a marine blue color. The red text “Vovinam” is written above the marine blue “Việt Võ Đạo”. Its pointing letters show the way to the destination. Underneath lie the two poles Yin (red) and Yang (marine blue).

In the middle of the two poles the yellow map of Vietnam can be found. The symbol of Yin and Yang is framed by a thick, white circle, symbolizing the being of the Dao, with the mission to mediate in between Yin and Yang, to subdue the two, to enable life of all beings.


Hard and soft

The Yin & Yang-Theory (Vietnamese: “Âm-Dương”) states that everything in the universe and on earth is initiated through the interrelation of Yin (negative) and Yang (positive).[5] As to this theory there are martial arts that prefer the hard over the soft and others that prefer the soft over the hard. Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo does not prefer any over the other. Hard and Soft are used equally to adapt to every situation, to every problem.

Based on Võ-Thuật the student aims to develop the ability to combine hard and soft at the right relation, in combat and in daily life. This aiming to develop both physical abilities as well as the student’s spirit. Not only the principle of the harmony of hard and soft but also many other things resulting from the training contribute to internalizing the martial art philosophy, e.g. fighting spirit, courage, tenacity, fairness, modesty and tolerance. Above all the training morality and the way of applying the techniques shape the students’ character.

The greatest difficulty is to see through ones own ego and then to overcome it.

On success in doing so the Vovinam student will gain generosity and tolerance with other people.

With the awareness that the most important thing in life of a human are other humans the final goal is to be able to not only help oneself but also to help others to live in peace and harmony with ones surrounding.

With the salutation, “Iron Hand over benevolent heart” the student is reminded about the main principle and about the goal of Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo with every training. It is also about using the opponent’s force and reaction, hence reach maximum effect with little force/effort.

10 principles of Vovinam Viêt Võ Dao

The term Việt Võ Đạo (“the way (Dao) of Viet Vo”) was coined by the patriarch of 2nd generation of the Vovinam Viet Vo Dao, the Grand Master Le Sang with the objective to add a philosophical dimension to his martial art. This “Viet Vo Dao” consists of ten principles:[5][4]

  1. Vovinam’s disciples vow to pursue high proficiency in their martial art in order to serve the people and humanity.
  2. Promise to be faithful to the intentions and teaching of Vovinam and develop the young generation of Vovinam Viêt Võ Dao
  3. Be united in spirit and heart, respect one’s elder, be kind to one’s peers.
  4. Respect discipline absolutely, maintain the high standard of personal conduct and honour of a martial art disciple.
  5. Have respect for other martial art schools, only use martial art skills for self-defense and protect justice.
  6. Be studious, strengthen the mind, enrich one’s thought & behavior.
  7. Live simply, with chastity, loyalty, high principles and ethics.
  8. Build up a spirit of steely determination and vigor, overcome powers of violence.
  9. Make intelligent judgments, carry out struggles with perseverance and act with alertness.
  10. Be self-confident, self-controlled, modest and generous.

(The wording can vary slightly between Vovinam schools)

A “Việt Võ Đạo Federation” was founded November 3, 1973 in order to re-unite some Vietnamese martial arts. Therefore “Việt Võ Đạo”, in Europe, is also used as a generic term for certainVietnamese martial arts and philosophies but in Vietnam is only used to refer to “Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo”.[citation needed]

Belt system, the uniforms and the colors

Vovinam official blue uniform or “vophuc”


From 1938-1964, there was no official uniform. In 1964, the first Council of Masters was gathered to codify Vovinam. The color Blue was adopted as the official color for Vovinam uniforms.[4] A separate development of the “Việt Võ Đạo Federation” in 1973 until 1990 the uniforms’ color was black.

Summer 1990 the Vovinam Masters met. This meeting had the goal to create a structured organization for Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo outside Vietnam. One of the decisions was that the suit in Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo are now to be blue worldwide. ProSpo India is official designers of Voviman Uniforms.[citation needed]


Rank Structure[3][4]
Title Võ Sinh Môn Sinh 1st Đẳng (Dan) 2nd Đẳng (Dan) 3rd Đẳng (Dan) 4th to 10th Dang (Dan) Patriarch
Rank Novice Practitioner Instructor Instructor Instructor / Master Master Grandmaster
Belt Light blue vovinam belt.svg Blue vovinam belt.svgBlue vovinam belt 1stripe.svgBlue vovinam belt 2stripe.svgBlue vovinam belt 3stripe.svg Judo black belt.svg Yellow vovinam belt 1stripe.svgYellow vovinam belt 2stripe.svg Yellow vovinam belt 3stripe.svg Yellow red vovinam belt.svgRed vovinam belt 1stripe.svgRed vovinam belt 2stripe.svgRed vovinam belt 3stripe.svg Red vovinam belt 4stripe.svgRed vovinam belt 5stripe.svgRed vovinam belt 6stripe.svg Multicolor vovinam grandmaster belt.svg

The student begins with a light blue belt – the same color as his/her suit. He then is a “Võ Sinh”, a student aspirant. The old school Vovinam had two navy blue stripes before getting the Navy Blue Belt. But recently, some Vovinam schools have changed under the direction of Le Sang (Lê Sang)and do not have a Light Blue Belt 1 stripe, or two.

Following the light blue is the dark blue belt. Then he/she is a “Môn Sinh”, a student.

Blue vovinam 16x16.png

Blue stands for the factor of the sea, and the hope – the hope in being successful in learning Vovinam.

With the following 3 exams yellow stripes are added to the blue belt. The 3rd yellow stripe is followed by the yellow belt. The student has reached the instructor’s level.

Yellow vovinam 16x16.png

Yellow It symbolically stands for the skin color of Asian people. It symbolizes the “skin deep” internalization of the martial art and the philosophy.

In other martial arts this belt is black. Therefore a Vovinam student who carries a yellow belt is allowed to carry a black belt. This makes a comparison to other martial arts easier, e.g. in public performances. A person who wears a yellow belt with one or more stripes is considered an instructor.

Following in a longer period of time, respectively 3 red stripes are added to the yellow belt. This corresponds to the 1st, 2nd, respectively 3rd Dang (Dan). The exam following the 3rd red stripe is the master’s exam. Passing the exam successfully assigns the right to wear a red belt with a circulating yellow border.

Red vovinam 16x16.png

Red stands for the blood and the intensive flame. The student has internalized Vovinam (Việt Võ Đạo) even further.

The 5th to 10th Dang are shown as a completed red belt with 1 to 6 white stripes.

White vovinam 16x16.png

White stands for the infiniteness, the bones; is the symbol of the depth of the spirit. The white belt assigns the master the absolute mastery of Vovinam Viêt Võ Dao.

On the white belt thin, lengthwise stripes in blue, yellow and red symbolize the whole of Vovinam (Việt Võ Đạo) again. This belt is reserved for the “Patriarch”. 2005 this is Grandmaster Le Sang.

Now, Vovinam has two different sets of belt ranking: one that the U.S. uses and another for Vietnam. The belt set in Vietnam starts with the navy blue belt with no stripe. After three successful exams, the student will advance to the yellow belt. In the U.S, a student would start with the light blue belt and after passing three exams they would advance to the navy blue belt. Like in Vietnam after passing three exams, they shall advance to the yellow belt unless the student is below the age of sixteen. In this case, the student will instead receive the black belt. When they are of age, that is when they will receive the yellow belt.

[edit]Name Plates

[4] With every change of belt color the name plate color changes. Blue belt students start off with yellow text on blue name plates. With the yellow belt the name plate changes to red text on yellow ground. The red belt comes along with white text on a red name plate. The patriarch carries red text on a white name plate. Thin, colored lines in blue, yellow and red are shown on the upper and lower borders of this white name plate.


Flying scissors to the neck. The opponent is forced to the ground with a twist of the body.

Vovinam has some specialised techniques:

  1. Đòn Chân
    A group of leg grappling techniques that is designed to grab the opponent by the feet or legs and take them down using twisting motions usable as a surprise attack in a fight. There are 21 leg grappling techniques.
  2. Đấm Lao
    A backfist swung reversely to the temple.
  3. Đá Cạnh
    A diagonally applied kick.

Basic techniques and weapons

See also

External links


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